rev: 2012
rev: July 1, 2013
rev:  May 1, 2014

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD GUIDELINES AND RULES Records will be input according to current Library of Congress practices using MARC format.

I. Searching: Before you create a new MARC record search the system.
    LION requires that you do three searches:

  • Standard number (ISBN, ISSN, etc.)
  • Additional standard number or title
  • Author

If no match is found conduct a remote search. NOTE:  When you find a match in LC please make sure all the tags apply to your item.  Example: “Viewing copy only”, “LC copy signed by author”. If there are tags that do not correspond to your item please remove them. Remember, things in red do not belong in the record.

II. What determines a match? A match is found if the record in the database and the item in hand agree in ALL the following points:

  • Author (s)
  • Title
  • Edition
  • Publisher
  • Volumes
  • Paging

An item may be attached to a bibliographic record when an author writes under a pseudonym and the author’s name on the title page does not match the name in the 100 field. Consider that you have a match if the only variation is one of the following:

  • A difference in the printing or copyright date
  • A minor variation in imprint, ex. “a division of…”, or “Harper Trophy”
  • An ISBN change
  • A difference in binding; add the second ISBN if necessary

III. Creating a new record: If no match is found create a MARC record. If you find a duplicate record you may merge the items, or you can notify the LION cataloger. Records created in III require the use of templates; LION has templates which may be copied, then edited.  See the III cataloging manual at for more information. Items that require a new record include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Book club editions – edition statement = 250|aBook club edition
  • Large print editions – gmd = 245|h[text (large print)], form of item code “d”, material type “l” (lower case L)
  • Electronic books and playaways – gmd = 245|h[electronic resource]

Be aware of material type selections as they determine OPAC scoping and icon display.

Types of new records:

1. Initial Search Records (ISR)

Fields required in an ISR:

Language – Required

Cat Date – Leave blank

Country – Required

Tag 008 – Audience (a, b, c, d, etc.)
              – Form Item (d=Large type)
              – Lit Form    (0, 1, e, p, etc.)

Tag 010 – Required if available

Tag 020 – Required if available

Tag 022 – Required if available

Tag 028 – Required if available

Tag 035 – Required

Tag 245 – |a Required |h if applicable |n if applicable |p if applicable |b required if applicable |c required if available

Tag 250 – Required if applicable

Tag 260 – |a Required |b required |c required

Tag 300 – |a Required |b required if applicable |c required |e  required if applicable

Tag 336 – Required

Tag 337 – Required

Tag 338 – Required

Tag 538 – Required if available

Tag 5xx – Notes are encouraged

Indicators need to be added when entering 1xx, 2xx, 4xx, 6xx, 7xx tags. Please see for more information.


2. On Order Records

Fields required in an On Order Record:

Tag 02x – Required if available

Tag 100 – If authorized and verified

Tag 245 – |a Required |h if applicable |b required |c required if available

Tag 250 – Required if available

Tag 260 – |a Required if available |b required if available |c required if available Tag 300 – |a Required if available |b required if available |c required if available

If you create an On Order record you must use the item location xxooo to allow holds to be placed.

3. Full MARC records If no OCLC match is found for a record you created (examples are ISRs or On Order records) you may be required to upgrade to a full MARC record.  For more information please see Upgrading an ISR [Insert Link Here]

Please see the OCLC Input and Standards Guidelines at for Full MARC cataloguing requirements.

4. On-the-fly items These are items on the shelf that have no record in the data base. This is done at the CIRC desk.

  • Ills
  • Fast Adds


An “on-the-fly” template must be set up ahead of time. Make sure that a “CAT Date” of 09-10-2006 is used in all these items. Information should be in CAPS. Make sure a note is added for the item to be sent to cataloguing when it returns. The item needs to be deleted and catalogued.  

5. Item Records 

Once a bibliographic record has been created and saved it must have an item or order record attached, or the bibliographic record will disappear.  LION will periodically run a clean-up program to delete records that have no items or orders attached.  The first library to attach an item to a vendor record is to upgrade that record.

IV. Editing records in the database:

When editing a bibliographic record add subfield “d” in an 040 tag and add your library’s identifying 3 digit code.  (These would be the old mnemonics). Do not change the 035 number. [See Appendix – LION cataloging codes]

Examples of editing include:
Correct misspellings
Adding subtitles or performers Changing the title and subtitle when the “item-in-hand” differs from what is in the system and there has been no edition change
Adding missing information such as the 300 tag
Adding other pertinent information    



We will not convert existing to AACR2 records to RDA. We will have a mixed catalog for many years.

LION will use a simplified version of RDA outline below. All LION catalogers must continue to learn and be familiar with all aspects of RDA, as we may implement more aspects of RDA in the future.

After the effective date all original records and all ISRs will be created using the RDA LION GUIDELINES listed below.

Records imported into the catalog that are full MARC AACR2 records do not need to be upgraded to RDA. If an imported record needs to be edited to will be edited to RDA using the RDA LION GUIDELINES. If there are both AACR2 and RDA records available, choose the RDA record.

We will not have parallel records for the same item. If there is an AACR2 record and an RDA record for the same item, they should be merged to the RDA record.



Use square brackets if information taken from a source outside the resource itself is used in any of the elements listed.


MARC leader    Leader/18/CAT FORM contains the value “i”  (for ISBD punctuation included)

040      |erda|dXXX (your 3 letter library code)

084      remove BISACSH codes

100     Entry is under first author mentioned, regardless of number. Collections or anthologies by different authors remain under title, as do series records. When a work is a collaboration by 2 or more creators, enter the most prominently named or first named creator in the 1XX field

Persons — Fictitious and real, non-human entities can be creators

ADD  |c identifier such as  occupation (if known) and  |e relators, e.g., |eauthor. Not necessary on ISRs but required on full records and upgrades

Use hyphen before death date, hyphen after birth date, but no "b.", "d,"; "active" replaces AACR2 "fl."

245       adhere to the AACR2 rules of chief source of information. 

No more "[et al.]” — Transcribe all names or, optionally, just the first name (e.g., “John Doe [and six others]")

No longer add defining word to ambiguous title, e.g., :|b[poems], :|b[proceedings].

 A noun phrase *associated* with the author is included in |c, e.g., 245 10 |aBurr /|ca novel by Gore Vidal

Transcribe  title as it appears. "[sic]", or bracketed additional letters, no longer used after typos. Create 246 with corrected title spellings and/or notes.

Transcribe punctuation as found, e.g., "…", but add ISBD punctuation.

|h [gmd] continue to use- add to all RDA records. Use only Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd Edition (AACR2) defined GMDs listed below.


activity card
art original
art reproduction
electronic resource

flash card

microscope slides
motion picture

sound recording
technical drawing


CD, DVD and Blue-Ray do not belong in the GMD. Put them in 538.

250      transcribe rather than abbreviate, e.g., 250 |aSecond edition. Use only    abbreviations that appear on the item.

264      Place of publication — always required

Only most prominently or first named place required

No more requirement to record first place in the "home country" , but can be added

Do not use abbreviations unless they appear on the resource

Always provide jurisdiction spelled out in brackets if lacking in 264$a.
Never transcribe a postal code.

Record initial article for publisher – enter exactly like you see it – if   abbreviated , abbreviate — Dates may be guessed and put in brackets.

Use square brackets only for information not found in the item, regardless of source within the item.

First indicator = Sequence of statements: blank # Not applicable/No information provided/Earliest 2 Intervening 3 Current/latest 

Second indicator = Function of entity: 0 Production, 1 Publication, 2 Distribution, 3 Manufacture Statements and 4 Copyright notice date

Use these phrases instead of Latin abbreviations only as a last resort. Find information from outside sources and enclose in square brackets

|a [Place of publication not identified] : |b [publisher not identified], |c [date of publication not identified].

copyright and phonogram signs may be used, or continue to use letter "c" or "p".
copyright:  New York :|bThe Dial Press, |c© 2008.

use numeric keypad  on the side not the numbers on the top of the keys
make sure num lock is on
Press and hold the “Alt”
Type “0169”

phonogram:  Toronto : |b ViK. Recordings, |c ℗2004.

get phonogram signs in Sierra: Tools menu -> Character Map -> select “Enclosed Alphanumerics” code chart and the circle-P is in column 5 at row 24c. 

Repeatable use

264  1  …|c [2013]

264 4 4 2014

Or continue to use a single 264

New York :|bThe Dial Press, |c1996, © 2008.

300      Abbreviations such as "p.", "v.", "ill." "col.", spelled out; cm, km, m without period considered symbols, not abbreviations; "hr", "in.", "min.", "rpm", "sec." still allowed.

Follow cm with a period only if 490 follows immediately after.

Videorecordings – Abbreviate time terms but do not abbreviate other extent terms
Do not use abbreviations for sound or color content terms
           (e.g., "sound" not "sd."; "silent" not "si.") or color content (e.g., "color" not "col.";   "black and white" not "b&wamp;w")

TEXT       Do not use brackets to indicate unnumbered pages

xxvii, 221 pages :|bcolor illustrations  ;|c22 cm.
xi, 819 pages, 32 pages of plates :|billustrations ;|c24 cm
1 volume (unpaged) ;|c28 cm (or 93 unnumbered pages or approximately 600 pages)

1 audio disc ;|c12 cm

3 audio discs (approximately 3 hr.) ;|c12 cm

2 videodiscs (approximately 91 min.) ;|c12 cm



336 Content (form)

337 Media (how is it delivered to user)

338 Carrier types (format) do not pluralize

Subfield b not required, but leave in if they are already in a record

Repeatable for kits, enter a separate 336-338 field for each kit component (Optional can just do one set for the main component of the items).


336 text|2rdacontent
337 unmediated|2rdamedia
338 volume|2rdacarrier


336 spoken word|2rdacontent
337 audio|2rdamedia
338 audio disc|2rdacarrier


336 performed music|2rdacontent
337 audio|2rdamedia
338 audio disc|2rdacarrier


336 two-dimensional moving image|2rdacontent
337 video|2rdamedia
338 videodisc|2rdacarrier

44-347 Not required, but leave in if they are already in a record

  • 344 – Sound Characteristics
  • 345 – Projection Characteristics of Moving Image
  • 346 – Video Characteristics
  • 347 – Digital File Characteristics

490      Transcribe as found rather than abbreviate

Do not abbreviate terms unless they actually appear that way on the resource
Record numbers expressed as numerals exactly as they appear on the resource
Convert numbers expressed as words to numerals, including ordinal numbers
490 0# |a Memoirs of diplomats ; |vvolume 23

650      remove BISACSH subjects codes

7XX    ADD  |c identifier such as  occupation (if known) and  |e relators, e.g., |eauthor. See list of  Relationship Designators at end. Not necessary on ISRs but required on full records and upgrades.

938      remove VENDOR coding


Go to RDA Procedures

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